Koanophyllon villosum Sw.
Formerly: Eupatorium villosum
Common Names: Jack-Ma-Da, Bitter
Habit: Koanophyllon villosum
grows as a small to medium sized shrub up to 3 meters in height
(typically shorter). The stems and leaves often have a covering of
short hairs. The leaves are arranged oppositely, are up to 7 cm long
and 3 cm wide and are ovate shaped. The leaf margins range from
entire to slightly dentate and have an obtuse leaf apex.
The flowers are arranged in a series of
heads that form corymbs. Each head contains up to 15 flowers and is
subtended by an involucre that is 3 mm in height. The involucre is
covered with a series of phyllaries. Each phyllary is linear. The
calyx is a ring of hairs and the corolla has 5 white to pink petals
that are fused to form a tube. There are 5 stamens fused to the base
of the corolla tube. The ovary is inferior and contains a single
seed. The fruit is an achene that is black at maturity with the
calyx hairs forming a pappus that assists in fruit/seed dispersal.
Habitat: Koanophyllon villosum
is considered a weedy species growing in human disturbed areas, the
edges of Dry Broadleaf Evergreen Formations (Coppice), and roadsides
in Pine Woodlands.
Distribution in Bahamas/Globally:
Koanophyllon villosum occurs throughout the islands of the
Bahamian Archipelago as well as southern Florida and the Caribbean
Koanophyllon villosum is used extensively in the Bahamas for
medicinal purposes including the treatment of circulatory problems,
colds and fevers, diabetes, gastrointestinal illnesses, and infant
Other species in the Caribbean are used
to treat gas, gripes and dermatological problems such as sores and